1Department of Clinical Physiology, Toho University Medical Center Sakura Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, Toho University Medical Center Sakura Hospital, 3Department of Cardiovascular Center, Toho University Medical Center Sakura Hospital
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a complex of signs and symptoms caused by compression of the vital neurovascular structures at the thoracic outlet region. TOS is classified into three distinct subtypes based on the involved structure: neurogenic, arterial, and venous. Vascular TOS (arterial and venous) is a rare disease that accounts for only 5% of all TOS cases. Ultrasound examination can be performed very easily and quickly, and it can also be done during the hyperabduction maneuver. We report two cases where an ultrasound examination was useful in detecting these rare diseases. Case 1: A 59-year-old female who presented with pallor of the left upper limb on hyperabduction was diagnosed with arterial TOS after early detection by ultrasound examination. Case 2: A 31-year-old male who presented with progressive swelling of the right upper limb due to subclavian vein thrombosis successfully treated with anticoagulant therapy was diagnosed with venous TOS.