Online Journal
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Journal of Medical Ultrasonics

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2017 - Vol.44

Vol.44 No.04

Review Article(総説)

(0337 - 0343)


The role of ultrasound for pediatric urinary tract diseases

宮坂 実木子



Department of Radiology, National Center for Child Health and Development

キーワード : children, ultrasound, normal variations, urinary tract infection, congenital urinary tract anomalies


Ultrasound is a valuable tool for urinary tract diseases in pediatric patients. One of the most important features of ultrasound is its lack of ionizing radiation. Another advantage of ultrasound in the pediatric population is its excellent resolution, which is related to the size of the patients and the smaller amounts of body fat. Therefore, higher transmitted frequencies provide better image resolution. Recently, ultrasound has played an increasingly important role in urinary tract disease, particularly the evaluation of urinary tract infection. After revision of the guideline in 2011, the strategy of diagnostic imaging has changed. Use of voiding cystourethrography has decreased, and more emphasis is placed on ultrasonographic findings to determine the need for additional examinations. Normal neonate kidneys have unique features that differentiate them from the kidneys of older children and adults. For example, the echogenicity of the renal cortex is greater than or equal to that of the liver or spleen, whereas in older children and adults the cortex is hypoechoic relative to these structures. Moreover, there are some anatomic variations such as fetal lobulation or cortical fusion. It is important to understand these normal variations in diagnosis. The normal variations of kidneys and ultrasonographic findings of urinary tract infection including urinary tract anomalies are reviewed in this article.